Bulletin of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. Astronomy, no. 60, p. 22-32 (2019)
Study of magnetism cyclicity of the Sun in the framework of the macroscopic magnetohydrodynamics theory
V. Krivodubskij, Dr Hab.
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv
Since the mid-70s of the last century, a new direction in theoretical studies of the evolution of the global magnetism of the Sun in the framework of macroscopic MHD has been launched at the Astronomical Observatory of the Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. The paper presents the results of a study of the processes of generation and restructuring of a large-scale (global) magnetic field based on the αΩ-dynamo model, taking into account new turbulent effects discovered in the theory of macroscopic MHD and data of helioseismological experiments on the internal rotation of the Sun. It was established that a sharp radial gradient of turbulent velocity in the lower half of the solar convective zone (SCZ) leads to a change in the sign of the azimuthal component of the helicity parameter α, resulting in the formation of a relatively thin layer of negative α-effect near the bottom of the SCZ. It was found that the layer of negative α-effect, together with the sign of the radial gradient of the angular velocity, detected in helioseismological experiments, makes it possible to explain the direction of migration of dynamo-waves on the solar surface. The magnetic saturation of the α-effect (alpha-quenching) in the deep layers of the SCZ was calculated. An explanation of the protracted duration of the 23rd solar cycle of about 13 years is proposed. For this, we used the observed data on a significant increase of the annual module of the magnetic fields of sunspots in the 23rd cycle. The calculated north-south asymmetry of the structure of the global magnetic field provides an opportunity to explain the phenomenon of the seeming magnetic “monopole”, which is observed during reversal of polar magnetism. It was found that the values of turbulent electrical conductivity and turbulent magnetic permeability of the solar plasma are significantly less than the corresponding gas-kinetic parameters. Therefore, the turbulent dissipation of solar magnetic fields is enhanced by 4–9 orders of magnitude compared with classical ohmic dissipation. Macroscopic turbulent diamagnetism of solar plasma was investigated. It has been found that in the lower part of the SCZ, turbulent diamagnetism acts against magnetic buoyancy, thus fulfilling the role of “negative magnetic buoyancy”. As a result of the balance of the effects of magnetic buoyancy and turbulent diamagnetism, a layer of blocked magnetic field of magnitude ≈ 3000 G is formed in the depths of the SCZ. The turbulent advection of a magnetic field in an inhomogeneous plasma density of the SCZ was studied. It was found that in the lower half of the SCZ of the equatorial domain, turbulent advection is directed upwards. As a result of the combined action of magnetic buoyancy and turbulent advection, deep strong toroidal fields are carried to the surface of the Sun in the latitudinal “royal zone” of sunspots. The role of horizontal turbulent diamagnetism in ensuring the long-term stability of sunspots was noted. To explain the observed phenomenon of double maxima of the solar spot cycle, a scenario was developed containing the generation of a magnetic field in the tachocline at the bottom of the SCZ and subsequent removal of this magnetic field from the depth layers to the surface in the latitudinal “royal zone”. The role of the radial omega-effect in the radiant zone in explaining the observed asymmetry in the amplitude of two neighbouring 11-years sunspot cycles was noted.
Turbulence, macroscopic magnetohydrodynamics, the Sun, global magnetic fieldf, helioseismology, αΩ-dynamo, convection zone, magnetic buoyancy, overshoot, tachocline, radiant zone, sunspots, 11-year magnetic cycle