Bulletin of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. Astronomy, no. 60, p. 6-14 (2019)

175 years of the astronomical observatory of the Kyiv university

V. Efimenko, Ph.D

Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv 


In 2020, the Astronomical Observatory celebrates its 175th anniversary. The first director of the observatory was a student of the founder of the Pulkovo Observatory, Academician V.Ya. Struve Vasily Fedorovich Fedorov. Under his leadership, a site for the observatory was selected, a project was developed (by architect V. Beretti), a main building was constructed, and basic observatory astronomical instruments were commissioned. He also prepared and taught basic astronomy and surveying courses for university students. After him at the university, the post of professor of astronomy and director of the Astronomical Observatory was occupied by well-known astronomers A.P. Shidlovsky, M.F. Handrikov, R.P. Vogel, S.D. Chornyi. The main area of scientific research since the foundation of the observatory until the 1940s was astrometry and theoretical astronomy. With the arrival at the University of Kiev in 1939, the already well-known astronomer S.K. Vsekhsviatsky, along with existing scientific trends, astrophysical studies began. He started studying the small bodies of the solar system, physics of the sun and solar activity, astrophysics at the University of Kiev. The most important scientific achievements of the astronomers of the university include the work of determining the orbits of celestial bodies, the meridian observations of stars to create and maintain the celestial coordinate system, numerous observations of solar eclipses, which created the concept of dynamic solar corona, observing comets and meteors, application of the general theory of relativity in astronomy, development of the theory of gravitational lensing, opening of comets and participation in the international scientific project of the European Space Agency “Rosetta” on the research of Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko.

Key words
Meridian circle, refractor, solar eclipse, solar corona, comets, meteors, relativity, gravitational lensing, ionosphere

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.17721/BTSNUA.2019.60.06-14